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In 2003 the Mariinsky hospital of Saint - Petersburg will be executed 200 years . It is possible to consider this hospital on the Liteiny prospect as oldest in city one of the medical establishments shareware . It was opened in a building specially constructed for it. The brief history it is those . In 1802 the Pavel's I widow Maria Feodorovna has given the son to the emperor Alexandr I thought about the system of the hospital for poor to commemoration of 100 - year's anniversary of capital. To developed the project of the hospital have entrusted to the architect Dgacomo Kvarengi who worked at the court. The construction began on May 28 , 1803 with a bookmark of church Saint Pavel. The double-storied hospital building with church in the middle central corridor and side chambers was finished in the spring of 1805 but inauguration of the hospital have postponed till a day of Saint Alexandr - August 30. The building of the hospital is marked by a noble simplicity and refined strictness of architectural proportions. The internal layout of the hospital was carefully thought over too. The chambers and rooms separated by the thick walls that ill people don't disturbed each other. In the largest chamber was placed no more than 15 beds. The principle of corridor layout created after the European type is not obsolescent and till now. After some time after inauguration the hospital has become practical school for the young doctors of Medicochirurgical academy. However treatment in that time was reduced to usual massage exsanguinations application of Spanish flies and leeches. National means of treatment and medicine man's receptions were in a large course. From the beginning of 1814 so-called "the compassionate widows", which one were nominated here from the Widow's home for nursing for patients were involved. The hospital instruction of their maintenance standby stated: "The position is not polysyllabic but is relevant for patients and requires a lot of patience and a good mind ". Those widows wearing dress sad-coloured also have a golden cross with a green fillet on a neck. On this cross around of an image of the God's Mother is written: "All grieving pleasure "on the one hand and with other one word: "The compassion ". The part of a former Italian garden component territory of the hospital wasn't only for a place of walks convalescent patients but also brought the considerable income. Till an 1836 there were greenhouses and up to the end of the 1850 -The years - the kitchen gardens where fruit and vegetables were grown. After demise of the empress Maria Feodorovna - in October 1828 - the hospital has received a title Mariinsky in her honour. From the very beginning the Swedes nominated main and higher doctors but main medical staff consist of the Germans occasionally didn't knowing of Russian at all . Case history be ordered in the hospital in German and Latin languages a long time. Till an 1866 the patient's name appeared only in German. But on the other hand special sense consists of it: "Titles of the illnesses and directed drugs are written apart on Latin. It was done that he did not know about the hazard". In spite of this routine some of representatives of Russian medicine ploughed one's way themselves. One of them was the issued Russian surgeon I.V.Buialsky who managed surgical branch of the hospital. Thanks to I.V.Buialsky there are many things which was do for the first time was carried out in the Mariinsky hospital The majority of his diversified operations from plastic and osteal to hernias and lithotomies was happen just here. During his life he made more than 2000 large operations. This digit was fancy for that time. One of the Buialsky 's postulates: "It easy to take away an arm or leg but never the erraticly taken away arm or leg never possible to put back hence it follows: seven times think and once cut off ".At the end of 1854 when there was a Crimean war 7 doctor's assistants and 30 compassionate widows send to theatre of act of war from hospital. The best proof of them selflessness that is 12 widows has terminated the existence by running in illness from hospital occupations and contagion "- the great Russian surgeon N.I.Pirogov wrote. The main doctor of hospital became the apprentice of S.P.Botkin V.I.Alishevsky in 1884. Under of Army Medical College named by interns. In spite of small salaries the interns had desktop and flat in the hospital, i.e.they lived in the hospital. Here they used consultations of the doctors, made small operations, dressed wounds, order case histories etc.The Mariinsky hospital one of the first in city accepted shocks of epidemics that have fallen on St.-Petersburg in middle of the 19-Th century. During the cholera 1831-1832 years maid Vasileva distinguished oneself "as the first who gave an example of a nursing for choleraic patients". During the typhous epidemic of 1846 the inflow ill people was so great that the hospital was compel to fail in a reception many from them daily. During the cholera 1870-1873 years there were not civilian desiring to nursing for ill people at the request of the hospital the main policeman of city sent for this purpose:Firemen. In the spring of 1845 on its territory in place of kitchen garden under the project of the architect A.P.Briullov (the painter Karl's Briullov brother) with the participation architect Sharleman I began to erect a new building. It entered in create in eve of 1848 and has received a title of the Alexandrinsky female hospital becoming specialised branch of the Mariinsky hospital. The historian P.N.Stolpiansky put forward the version that because of arrival here of people "with hope to recover "former the Shestilavochny street the new branch of hospital steel flanked to which one to name as Nadezhdinsky street (in English the street of the hope, nowadays Maiakovsky street). In 1891 in view of increase of number of the out-patients near by the Alexandrinsky female hospital have constructed a building of an ambulatory in which surgical and therapeutic receiving have transferred in 1892. Till February of 1905 the last construction on territory of the hospital dated to its 100-year's jubilee - double storied building of the isolation branch was finished. In each of brunches of the hospital there were small libraries for patients. The light pictures with the help of "a magic lantern" were demonstrated there. The library for the doctors was located in the lower floor of a main building and totalled 7344 volumes till 1914. The hospital was supervised by state treasure besides their capitals. Also the rich honorary trustee was nominated for the hospital which promoted its needs financially and morally. In 1832-1839 years such trustee was the known composer and patron of art M.Iu.Vielgorsky and then the prince P.G.Oldenburgsky backing up many progressive innovations in domestic medicine. In February 1844 under the initiative of the prince Oldenburgsky the medical assistant's school with a three-year rate of tutoring was created attached to the hospital. P.G.Oldenburgsky supplied hospital with different drugs, seats, by a stretcher on own means. He personally constructed special hydrostatic bed with a rubber mattress for ill people suffering from the bedsores. In 1889 under the project of the sculptor I.N.Schreder in front of an iron fence of the Mariinsky hospital on a granite pedestal the sculpture of P.G.Oldenburgsky was established in memory of his trustee activity. On its place traditional for medicine cup being entwined about the Asklepy's snake have placed in the Soviet time. The sculpture of P.G.Oldenburgsky was lost. With the beginning of the First World War many doctors of the hospital were sent on a front and the hospital accepted the wounded soldiers. In February revolution of 1917 the people suffering in street combats were bringing at the Mariinsky hospital that is why in 1918 the title "The Hospital in memory of victims of revolution "was appropriated to it. The hospital became clinical base of the institute of improvement of the doctors at the first year of the Soviet authority. New branches by aural, throat and nose illnesses and urological, therapeutic, surgical clinics arose in it. The tubercular branch was open. In 1930 in the hospital the service of blood transfusion was organised. The first in city traumatic branch was created in polyclinic in 1937. During blockade of the Leningrad in the time of the Second World War the independent specialised hospitals on the base of so-called "operating bunks" were created in the hospital. There were 785 bunks for accepted wounded from among civilian population of besieged Leningrad. Some branches, laundry, galley, and other locations suffered by air bombs and artillery shells which fallen on city. The central heating and electrical illumination were infringed. In the winter the temperature in chambers reached zero degrees Centigrade. Water carried by buckets from the Fontanka River. Walls of the destroyed buildings were used for the firewood. Small temporary stoves heated large premises. During blockade some employees of the hospital perished by exhaustion and fire but the hospital did not terminate operations all that time. After war the destroyed buildings of the hospital were retrieved. Kitchen gardens and the subsidiary farms on its territory are abolished. In 1955 on territory of the hospital the sixth medical school was opened. It prepares qualified medical sisters and other workers average medical personnel and to this day. Since 1997 in that school the branch of preparation of the orthodox sisters of mercy is open. Despite of the considerable age the Mariinsky hospital - modern versatile hospital by potency more than 1000 bunks today. The Mariinsky hospital is a hospital of pavilion type. At historical centre of St.-Petersburg on territory in 6,2 hectares 15 buildings and structures of hospital are arranged. There are 18 clinical and 20 auxiliary subdivisions are placed. In the hospital more than 1000 persons work today. The Mariinsky hospital is a basis of the first help to the inhabitants of a central part of St.-Petersburg where lives more than 500000 persons. Most of widespread medical specialities of the Mariinsky hospital are the transabdominal surgery, urinology, gynaecology, otolaryngology, neurology, gastroenterology, cardiology, general therapy, endocrinology, ophthalmology, nuclear medicine. The branch of blood transfusion is present. Annually more than 40000 persons pass treatment in this hospital some of them receive the outpatient help. Annually about 12000 operations are executed in surgical branches (it more than 600 bunks) and the outcomes of surgical treatment in this hospital are better than average urban digits as a rule.

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